After completing the "comping and correction" stage, I now have five or so mono tracks of vocals ready for the next stage. I like to apply one last destructive edit before applying any FX or panning or mixing: "normalizing".
Audio Normalization is generally understood as making a collection of audio clips have the same peak value of 0 db. Many audio tools let you do this at the click of a button, but that's not going to be helpful here. I need to do two or three things:
- ensure that the average level throughout each of the vocal tracks is constant, i.e it sounds like one consistent take;
- reduce breath sounds and noise between vocal phrases;
- make all vocal tracks sound the same volume when set at 0db gain.
I do this by adding a Gain Envelope to each clip, boosting and cutting where appropriate, and comparing across each of the five or so tracks:
on average, I'm generally boosting the tracks 3-6 db, and reducing the "intake breath before each line" by 6 db, and silencing anything else. When I solo these tracks, I can actually hear the bleed-through of the backing music from my headphones being picked up by the vocal microphone, so I make sure to replace those sections with silence.
After a final listen to each complete track to check for things I've missed, we get to the destructive part: For each track, I select all clips for an entire verse or chorus, and "bounce to clip". This replaces the audio data with the new version, with the gain envelope applied:
That screenshot is of backing vocal tracks, showing the last phrase of a verse, followed by the chorus (hence the separate clips on each track).
I know it is unfair of me to talk about this process without providing audio samples, but I'm not quite secure enough for that. Even with pitch correction and gain normalization, these "naked" vocals are pretty unimpressive. Perhaps later.
Next: Mixing, routing, and effects.